Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict


Solomon Asch Center Summer Institute

University of Pennsylvania,  June 3 - August 13, 1999

For additional information about the Visiting Faculty click here. For the 1999 Summer Institute Schedule click here.


1.Welcome to SACSEC, overview of ethnicity and ethnopolitical conflict

R Asch, S. E. (1952). Social psychology. NY:Prentice-Hall. Chapter 9 (pp. 240-259).

R Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Chapter 1, pp1-38.

R Connor, W. (1994). Ethnonationalism: the quest for understanding. Princeton University Press. Chapter: "Ethnonationalism" pp. 68-86.

Chirot, D.(in press). The context and nature of ethnopolitical conflict: A taxonomy.

Brown, M. (1997). Causes and implications of ethnic conflict. In M. Guibernau &

J. Rex (Eds.), The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism & Migration.  Malden: Blackwell.

Horowitz, D. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: UC Press.

Weber, M. (1997). What is an ethnic group? In M. Guibernau & J. Rex (Eds.),The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism & Migration. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

2. South Africa

R duPreez, P. (1997). In search of genocide: A comparison of Rwanda and South Africa. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3(3), 245-259.

R deKock, E. (1998). A long night's damage: Working for the apartheid state. Saxonwold, Republic of South Africa: Contra Press. Chapters 1-8, pp. 9-152.

Krog, A. (1998). Country of my skull.

3. N. Ireland

R O'Leary, B., & McGarry, J. (1996). The politics of antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland, Second Edition. London: Athlone Press. Chapters 2 & 3, pp. 54-147.

Feldman, A. (1991). Formations of violence : the narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland.

O'Leary, B. (1998). "The nature of the agreement." Transcribed lecture delivered at Queen's University, Belfast, November 26.

Ruane, J., & Todd, J. (1996). The dynamics of conflict in Northern Ireland: power, conflict, and emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Whyte, J. (1990). Interpreting Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press.

4. Sri Lanka

R Desilva, C. R. (1982). The Sinhalese-Tamil rift in Sri Lanka. In A. J Wilson & D. Dalton (Eds.), The states of south asia: problems of national integration, pp. 155-175. London:C. Hurst.

R Desilva, K.M. (1993). The language problem: the politics of language policy. In K.M.  Desilva (Ed.), Sri Lanka: problems of governance, pp. 275-305. New Delhi: Konark Publishers.

R Daniel, E. V. (1996). Embodied terror. In Charred Lullabies: chapters in an anthropology of violence, pp 135-153. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

R Seneviratne, H.L., & Stavropoulou, M. (1998). Sri Lanka's vicious circle of displacement.  In R. Cohen & F. M. Deng (Eds.), The forsaken people; case studies of the internally displaced, pp. 359-398. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.

R Samarasinghe, V. (1996). Soldiers, housewives and peacemakers: ethnic conflict and gender in Sri Lanka. Ethnic Studies Report, XIV(2), July, 203-227.

Tambiah, S. (1992). Buddhism betrayed: Religion, politics, and violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Little, D. (1994). Sri Lanka: The invention of enmity. Washington, DC: USIP.

Spencer, J. (Ed.) (1990). Sri Lanka: History and the roots of conflict. London: Routledge.

Somasundaram, D. (1998). Scarred Minds: The psychological impact of war on Sri Lankan  Tamils. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Perera, S. (1998). Political violence in Sri Lanka: Dynamics, consequences,and issues of democratization. Colombo: Karunarathene & Sons, Ltd.

5. Israel/Palestine

R Arlosoroff, C. (1948). Reflections on Zionist policy. Jewish Frontier, October, 49-53. (Letter originally published 30 June 1932)

R Tessler, M. (1996). A history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Bloomington: Indiana Press. Chapter 5, pp. 274-335.

Shipler, D.K. (1986). Arab and Jew: Wounded spirits in the Promised Land. New York: Times Books.

Schiff, Z., & Ya'ari, E. (1990). Intifada: The Palestinian uprising--Israel's third front. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Lockman, Z., & Beinin, J. (Eds.) (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian uprising against  Israeli occupation. Boston: South End Press.

Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1972) Some psychosocial and cultural factors in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A review of the literature. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 16, 269-80.

Bilu, Y. (1989). The other as a nightmare: The Israeli-Arab encounter as reflected  in children's dreams in Israel and the West Bank. Political Psychology, 10, 365-389.

Makovsky, D. (1996). Making peace with the PLO: The Rabin government's road to the Oslo accord. Washington: Westview Press.

Migdal, J., & Kimerling, B. (1993). The Palestinians: The making of a people.

Elon, A. (1972). Israelis: Founders and sons.



1. Classic statements

Mattingly, G. (1970). Renaissance Diplomacy, pp. 245-56, Chapter 28 "Law among the Nations. Baltimore: Peregrine Books..

Lord Acton's essay on Nationality

Renan, E. (1882). What is a nation?

R Stalin, J. (1972). "Marxism and the National Question", in B. Franklin (Ed.), The Essential Stalin, pp. 57-84. Garden City, NY: Anchor.

R Kohn, H. (1955). Nationalism: Its meaning and history. New York: Van Nostrand. No. 3, Herder: Germans and Slavs. Reading No. 4, Hegel: The State. Reading No. 6, Greek National Assembly: Proclamation of Independence. Reading No. 7, Mazzini: On the Unity of Italy. Reading  No. 16, Danilevsky: Pan-Slavism. Reading No. 17, Havlicek:The Danger of Pan-Slavism.

Primordialist theory

R Connor, W. (1994). Man is a r/national animal. Chapter 8 in Ethnonationalism: the quest for understanding, pp. 195-209.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univerisity Press.

R Kaplan, R. D. (1993). Old Serbia and Albania: Balkan "West Bank". Chapter 2 in Balkan ghosts: A journey through history, pp. 29-48. New York: Vintage.

Smith, A. D. (1986). Structure and persistence of ethnie. In M. Guibernau & J. Rex (Eds.), The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism & Migration. Malden: Blackwell.

Smith, A. D. (1986). The ethnic origins of nationalism. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Kramer, M. (1993). Arab nationalism: Mistaken identity. In "Reconstructing nations and states", special issue of Daedalus (Summer 1993), 171-206.

Eller and Coughlan (1993). The poverty of primordialism: the demystification of ethnic attachments. Ethnic And Racial Studies, 16, April, 183-202.

2. Constructivist and instrumentalist theory

R Anderson, B. (1991). Introduction. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism,pp. 1-7. London: Verso Editions/NLB, 1983.

R Gellner, E. (1983). Nationalism and ideology. Chapter 9 in Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gellner, E. (1997). Nationalism. New York: NYU Press.

Calhoun, C. (1997). Nationalism. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press.

Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, February.

Hall, J. A. (Ed.) (1998). The state of the nation: Ernest Gellner and the theory of nationalism.

R Laitin, D. The Ogaadeen Question and Changes in Somali Identity. In D. Rothchild & V. Olorunsola (Eds.) (1983). State Versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemmas, pp. 331-349. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hastings, A. (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion and nationalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

3. Strategic, historical, economic factors

Hobsbawm, E. (1997). An anti-nationalism acccount of nationalism since 1989.  In M. Guibernau & J. Rex (Eds.), The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism & Migration. Malden: Blackwell, pp 69-79.

Hechter, M. (1975). Internal colonialism: the Celtic fringe in British national development, 1536-1966. Berkeley: University of California Press.

List, F. (1955). Nationality and economy. In H. Kohn (Ed.), Nationalism, pp. 129-135.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. Ireland and the Irish question.

Tilly, C. How war made states and vice versa. In Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990-1992, pp. 67-95.

Kiernan, V. (1965). State and nation in Western Europe. Past and Present, No. 31.

R Weber, E. (1976) Cultures and civilization. Peasants into Frenchmen: the modernization of rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. (485-496).

Royal Institute of International Affairs. The rise of national feeling in Western Europe. In Bendix, R. (Ed.), State and Society, pp215-227.

Watkins, S. (1991). From provinces into nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

4. Game theoretic, rational-choice, language approaches

R Laitin, D. (1998). A theory of political identifies, Identity and ethnic violence. Chapters 1 and 12 in Identity in formation: The Russian-speaking populations in the near abroad, pp. 3-35, 325-345. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Fearon, J., & Laitin, D. (1996). Explaining interethnic cooperation. American Political Science Review, 90, No. 4, (December), 715-735.

Breton, A. Et al. (1995). Nationalism and rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hardin, R. (1995). One for all : the logic of group conflict. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press.

Tiryakian, E. & Rogowski, R. (Eds.) (1985). The new nationalisms of the developed West. Boston: G. Allen & Unwin.

5. Identity: post-colonialism and imperialism

Smith, A.D. (1983). State and nation in the third world: the Western state and African nationalism. New York: St. Martins Press.

Moore, H. C. The colonial dialectic. In The Politics of North Africa, Chapter 2, pp.34-90.

Memmi, A. (1965). The colonizer and the colonized. New York: Orion.

R Bhabha, H. (1994). Of mimicry and man: The ambivalence of colonial discourse.

Chapter 4 in The Location of Culture, pp. 85-101.. London: Routledge.

R Nandy, A. (1983). The intimate enemy: Loss and recovery of self under colonialism. New Delhi: Oxford.

Chaterjee, P. The nation and its fragments.

Roberts, H. (1994). From radical mission to equivocal ambition: The expansion and manipulation of Algerian islamism, 1979-1992. In M Marty & R. Appleby (Eds.), Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The dynamic character of movements, pp.428-489. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Varshney, A. (1993). Contested meanings: India's national identity, Hindu nationalism, and the politics of anxiety. In "Reconstructing nations and states", special issue of Daedalus (summer 1993).

6. Identity: hegemonic approaches and ethnonationalism in the first world

R Lustick, I. (1997). Hegemony and the riddle of nationalism: The dialectics of political identity in the Middle East. Published as Working Paper by the Christopher Browne Center for International Politics, University of Pennsylvania. Available on CIAO and Penncip websites.

Lustick, I. (1996). Fundamentalism, politicized religion, and pietism. Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, 30, 26-32.

Esman, M. (1977). Perspectives on ethnic conflict in industrial societies. In Ethnic conflict in the western world. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Laitin, D. (1986). Hegemony and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Covell, M. (1993). Belgium: The variability of ethnic relations. In J. McGarry & B. O'Leary (Eds.), The politics of ethnic conflict regulation, pp.275-295.

Klusmeyer, D.B. (1993). Aliens, immigrants, and citizens: The politics of inclusion in the Federal Republic of Germany. In "Reconstructing nations and states", special issue of Daedalus (summer, 1993), 81-114.

Nairn, T. (1981). The Break-up of Britain, "Scotland and Europe, pp. 92-125. London: Verso.

7. Identity as practice, performance, and emergent phenomenon

R Brubaker, R. (1996). Rethinking nationalism. Chapter 1 in Nationalism reframed: Nationhood and the national question in the New Europe, pp. 13-22.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

R Dennett, D. C. (1995). Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings of life, pp 163-171. New York: Simon & Schuster.

R Lustick, I. (1998). Laws, stories, and agent-based modeling. Clio: Newsletter of Politics & History, pp 1, 20-21.

R Lustick, I. (1999 unpublished). Rules governing Lustick/Dergachev contructivist identity model.

Verdery, K. (1993). Whither 'nation' and 'nationalism'? In "Reconstructing nations and states," special issue of Daedalus (summer) 37-46.

Lustick, I. (1998 unpublished paper). A constructivist agent-based model of collective identity and identity change.



1. Nature and representation of categories: classical, prototype, instance theories

Child development of categories of race and ethnicity

R Hirschfeld, L.A. (1996). Race in the making: Cognition, culture, and the child's construction of human kinds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chapters 1, 2, 4, and Conclusion.

2. Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination (beliefs, attitudes, and behavior)

Sedikides, C., Insko, C., & Schopler, J. (Eds.), (1997). Intergroup cognition and behavior. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fiske, S. (1998). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Chapter 25 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 357-411. New York: McGraw-Hill.

R McCauley, C. et al. (1995). Stereotype accuracy: toward appreciating group differences. In Y.T. Lee et al (Eds.), Stereotype accuracy: toward an appreciation of group differences. Washington, DC: APA Books. Pp. 293-312.

Smith, E. R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D. Mackie & D. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping (pp. 297-315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Group centrism in public opinion

Mass media power: persuasion vs. agenda setting and framing

R Kinder, D. R. (1998). Opinion and action in the realm of politics. Chapter 34 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II,  pp. 778-867. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 800-812.

Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: the political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.

3. Arousing group identification: The minimal group effect

R Tajfel, H (1970) Experiments in intergroup discrimination, Scientific American, 223,96-102.

Brown, R. (1986). Chapter 15, "Ethnocentrism and hostility," in Social Psychology, 2nd Edition. New York: Free Press.

Tyler, T., & Smith, H. (1998). Social justice and social movements.

Ethnic identification, patriotism and nationalism

R Schatz, R.T., Staub, E, & Lavine, H. On the varieties of national attachment: Blind versus constructive patriotism. Political Psychology, 1999, Vol.20, No.1, 151-174.

Bar-Tal, D., & Staub, E. (Eds.) (1997). Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Greenfield, L. (1993). Transcending the nation's worth. In "Reconstructing nations and states," special issue of Daedalus (summer), 47-62.

Scheff, T. J. (1994). Emotions, nationalism, and war. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

4. Dissolving group identification: the contact hypothesis

R Pettigrew, T. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49,65-85.

Katz, I. (1991). Gordon Allport's The Nature of Prejudice. Political psychology, 12, 125-157.

Forbes, H. D. (1997). Ethnic conflict: commerce, culture and the contact hypothesis. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Schelling, T. C. (1978). Chapter 5, "Sorting and mixing: race and sex," in Micromotives and macrobehavior. New York: Norton.

5. Positive and negative social emotions

Batson, C. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II (pp. 282-316).

Oliner, S. P., & Oliner, P. M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Free Press.

R Frank, R. H. (1988). Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. New York: Norton. Pp. 1-19, 43-70. Highly recommended are pp. 20-42 and 71-95.



1. Culture and violence

R Fiske, A., Kitayama, S., Markus, H., & Nisbett, R. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. Chapter 36 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 915-981. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 945-963.

R A. P. Fiske, A. P. , & Haslam, N. (1996). Social Cognition Is Thinking About Relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science,: 5, 143-148 .

R Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1937). Witchcraft, oracles and magic among the Azande. Oxford: Clarendon. Excerpt (Chapters IV, VI & VII--pp. 63-83, 99-117 in unabridged edition) .

Rosaldo, Michelle (1980). Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

2. The power of the social situation; conformity and escalation

Asch, S. (1952). Unanimous majority against a minority of one. In Social Psychology. New York: Prentice Hall.

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority. New York: Harper & Row.

Teger, A. (1980). Too much invested to quit: the psychology of escalation. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

R Sabini, J. (1992). Social psychology. NY: Norton. Pp. 20-27; 49-61.

3. Group dynamics theory: normative vs. informational social influence

R McCauley, C. (1998). Group dynamics in Janis's theory of groupthink: Backward and forward. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 142-162.

Lifton, R. J. (1963). Thought reform and the psychology of totalism. New York: Norton.

Staub, E. (1989). The roots of evil. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Group dynamics theory: group extremity shift.

Brown, R. (1989). Chapter 6, "Group extremity shift," in Social Psychology, 2nd Edition, pp. 200-248.

4. Religion and violence

R Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (1997). Why do we need what we need? A terror management perspective on the roots of human social motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 1-20.

Arndt, J., et al. (1997). Subliminal exposure to death-related stimuli increases defense of the cultural worldview. Psychological Science, 8, 379-385.

Bloch, M. (1992). Prey into hunter: the politics of religious experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

R Bloch, M. (1998). The presence of violence in religion. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment, pp. 163-178. New York: Oxford.

5. Psychology of terrorist groups; genocide

Stouffer, S. A., et al. (1949). The American Soldier, Vol. 2: Combat and its aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

McCauley, C., & Segal, M. (1987). Social psychology of terrorist groups. In C. Hendrik (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 9. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

R McCauley, C. (1991). Terrorism research and public policy: An overview. Terrorism and Political Violence, 3, 126-144. Also available in C. McCauley (Ed.) (1991) Terrorism research and public policy, pp 126-144. London: Frank Cass.

Lustick, I. (1995). Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli conflict: Targets and audiences. In M. Crenshaw (Ed.), Terrorism in context. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp.514-552.

Goldhagen, D. J. (1996). Hitler's willing executioners : ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.New York: Knopf.

R Browning, C. R. (1992). Ordinary men: Reserve police battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins. 1998 "Afterword", pp.191-223.

Psychology of men in combat

Keegan, J. (1977). The face of battle: A study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme. New York: Vintage.

Marshall, S. L. A. (1947). Men against fire: The problem of battle command in future war. New York: Morrow.

Stouffer, S. A., et al. (1949). The American soldier, Vol 2: Combat and its aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

van Crevald, M. (1982). Fighting power. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press.

Little, R. (1964). Buddy relations and combat performance. In M. Janowitz (Ed.), The new military. New York: Russell Sage.

Moskos, C. C. (1975). The combat soldier in Vietnam. The Journal of Social Issues, 31, 25-37.

Holmes, R. (1985). Acts of war: The behavior of men in battle. New York: Free Press.

Bradbury, W. C., Meyers, S. M., & Biderman, A. D. (1968). Mass behavior in battle and captivity: The Communist soldier in the Korean War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Herzog, C. (1982). The Arab-Israeli wars : War and peace in the Middle East. New York:Random House.



1. Frustration-aggression theory vs. anger-insult theory, instrumental vs impulsive aggression

R Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 74-96.

Kenrick, D. T., Cialdini, R. B., & Linder, D. E. (1979). Misattribution ujnder fear producing circumstances: Four failures to replicate. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 329-334.

R Konecni, V. J., & Doob, A. N. (1972). Catharsis through displacement of aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psy chology, 23, 279-397.

R Konecni, V. J. (1975). Annoyance, type and duration of postannoyance activity, and aggression: The "cathartic" effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 104, 76-102.

R Zillmann, D., & Cantor, J. R. (1976). Effects of timing of information about mitigating circumstances on emotional responses to provocation and retaliatory behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 38-55.

Zillmann, D., Johnson, R.C., & Day, K.D. (1974). Attribution of apparent arousal and proficiency of recovery from sympathetic activation affecting excitation transfer to aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 503-515.

Sabini, J. (1995). Chapter 13, "Aggression," Social psychology, 2nd Edition. New York: Norton.

DeRidder, R., & Tripathi, R. C. (Eds.) (1992). Norm violation and intergroup relations. New York: Oxord University Press.

Archer, D., & Gartner, R. (1984). Violence and crime in cross-national perspective.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

2. Evolutionary origins of altruism, tit-for-tat, revenge

R Axelrod, R. (1980). Effective choice in the prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24, 3-25.

Batson, C. D., O'Quinn, K., Fultz, J., Vanderplas, M. & Izen, A. M. (1983). Influence of self-reported distress and empathy on egoistic versus altruistic motivation to help.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 706-718.

R Burnstein, E., Crandall, C., & Kitayama, S. (1994). Some neo-Darwinian decision rules for altruism: Weighing cues for inclusive fitness as a function of the biological importance of  the decision. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 773-789.

Cohen, D. (1996). Law, social policy, and violence: The impact of regional cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 961-978.

Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bowdle, B. F. & Schwartz, N. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the Southern culture of honor: An "experimental ethnography". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.

R Cohen, D., Vandello, J., Puente, S., & rantilla, A. (1999). Interaction styles that perpetuate violence:How norms for politeness and aggression work. Manuscript submitted for publication. University of Illinois.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Caccaro, E. (1995). The biology of aggression. Scientific American Science and Medicine, Jan/Feb, 38-47.

Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. New York: DeGruyter.

Buss, D. M., & Kenrick, D. T. (1998). Evolutionary social psychology. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition,Vol II, pp. 982-1026. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tullberg, J., & Tullberg, B. (and Commentaries) (1997). Separation or Unity? A Model for Solving Ethnic Conflicts. Politics and the Life Sciences, 16 (September), 237-78.

Ross, M. H. (1991). The role of evolution in ethnocentric conflict and its management. Journal of Social Issues, 47, 167-185.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor : the psychology of violence in the South. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Ignatieff, M. (1998). The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War & the Modern Conscience. New York: Holt.

3. Realistic group conflict theory and other structural theories of conflict and aggression

R LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Realistic group conflict theory. Chapter 3 in Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: John Wiley.

R Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books. Chapters 1, 2, and 4.

R Meggitt, M.J. (1964). Male-female relationships in the highlands of Australian New Guinea. American Anthropologist, 66, 204-224.

Sherif, M., et al. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers' Cave experiment. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Book Exchange.

Brewer, M., & Brown, R. (1998). Intergroup relations. Chapter 29 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 554-594. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, D. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. (1987). Realistic group conflict theory. In D.M. Taylor & F. M. Moghaddam (Eds.), Theories of intergroup relations: International social psychological perspectives, pp. 33-57. Praeger.

Relative deprivation theory.

Tyler, T., & Smith, H. (1998). Social justice and social movements. Chapter 30 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II,  pp. 595-629. New York: McGraw-Hill

Walker, I., & Mann, L. (1987). Unemployment, relative deprivation, and social protest. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 275-283.

4. Psychocultural origins of ingroup and outgroup aggression

R Ross, M.H. (1993). The management of conflict: Interpretations and interestes in comparative perspective. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Chapters 1 and 2.

R Ross, M.H. (1995). Psychocultural interpretation theory and peacemaking in ethnic conflicts. Political Psychology, 16, 523-544.

R Ross, M.H. (Unpublished manuscript). Psychocultural interpreations and dramas: Identity dynamics in ethnic conflict.



1. Psychodynamic approaches: loss and mourning, narcissm of small differences.

Volkan, V. (1985). The need to have enemies and allies: A developmental approach. Political Psychology, 6, 219-247.

Montville, J. (1987). Psychoanalytic enlightenment and the greening of diplomacy. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 37(2).

R Volkan, V. (1997). Bloodlines: from ethnic pride to ethnic terrorism. New York: Farrar, Strauss, & Giroux. Chapter 3 (Ancient fuel for a modern inferno: Time collapse in Bosnia Herzegovina) and Chapter 13 (Experiment in Estonia: 'Unofficial diplomacy' at work).

R Volkan, V. D. (1999). Psychoanalysis and diplomacy: Part I. Individual and large group identity. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 29-55.

R Mack, J. (1983). Nationalism and the self. Psychohistory Review, 2, 47-69.

Ignatieff, M. (1995). Nationalism and the narcissm of minor differences. Queen's Quarterly, Spring, 13-26.

Authoritarian personality.

Brown, R. (1965). The authoritarian personality and the organization of attitudes. Chapter 9 in Social Psychology. New York: Free Press.

Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

2. Forgiveness, negativity dominance, and some aspects of methodology


R Enright, R. D., Freedman, S., & Rique, J. (1998). The psychology of interpersonal forgiveness. In: R. D. Enright and J. North (eds.). Exploring forgiveness (pp. 46-62). Madison Wisconsin: U. of Wisconsin Press.

R Baumeister, Roy F., Exline, Julie Juola, and Sommer, Kristin L. (1998). The victim role, grudge theory, and two dimensions of forgiveness. In E. L. Worthington Jr. (ed.). Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research and theological perspectives, (pp. 79-104). Philadelphia, PA.: Templeton Foundation Press.

R Shriver, D. W. Jr. (1998). Is there forgiveness in politics? Germany, Vietnam, and America. In: R. D. Enright and J. North (eds.). Exploring forgiveness, (pp. 131-149). Madison Wisconsin: U. of Wisconsin Press.

Negativity dominance (Paper by Rozin and Royzman in preparation).


R Rozin, P. (1998). Social psychology and science: Some lessons from Solomon Asch. (Submitted manuscript).

        References for some of the examples of culturally oriented methodology to be discussed in class:

        The following studies are all excellent examples of a cultural approach. The first, by Nisbett and Cohen, is perhaps the best example of a well thought out, broad-based approach to a psychological issue, combining a dazzling set of methodologies.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996) Culture of Honor. The psychology of violence in the south. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. (150)

        Each of the following studies exemplifies one interesting approach, spelled out in a productive and intelligent way.

    Cultural differences explored by using bicultural individuals:

Sussman, N. M., & Rosenfeld, H. M. (1982). Influence of culture, language, and sex on conversational distance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 66-74.

Cultural differences having to do with participation in two very different political situations (East and West Berlin), beautifully controlled for almost everything else, and using ethological and textual analysis techniques.

Oettingen, G., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1990).Pessimism and behavioural signs of depression in East and West Berlin. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 207-220.

Analysis based on keen observation of one's own culture, by the quintessential observer, Erving Goffman:

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 1. Stigma and social identity. Pp. 1-40.

A systematic, large scale cultural comparison of educational systems, using combined observational, survey and interview techniques:

Stevenson, H. W. (1992). A long way to being number one: What we have to learn from East Asia. Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and cognitive sciences, Science and Public Policy Seminars, 1-17.

Cultural comparisons of sleeping arrangements, using a novel constructive task:

Shweder, R. A., Jensen, L. A., & Goldstein, W. M. (1995). Who sleeps by whom revisited: A method for extracting the moral goods implicit in practice. In Goodnow et al. (eds.). Cultural practices as contexts for development. New Directions in Child Development, 67, (Pp. 21-39). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

The clever behavioral measure:

Madsen, M. C. (1971). Developmental and cross-cultural differences in the cooperative and competitive behavior of young children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2(4), 365-371.

Large scale survey on basic values, across a wide range of cultures:

Hofstede, G. (1982). Dimensions of national cultures. In R. Rath, H. S. Asthana, D. Sinha, & J. B. P. Sinha (eds.) Diversity and unity in cross-cultural psychology (Pp. 173-187). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.

The use of pathology to understand normal function:

Rozin, P., Dow, S., Moscovitch, M., & Rajaram, S. (1998). The role of memory for recent eating experiences in onset and cessation of meals. Evidence from the amnesic syndrome. Psychological Science, 9, 392-396.

The Asch impressions technique:

Miller, L. F., Fiske, A., & Rozin, P. (1998). The social meaning of sharing food in the United States. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 423-436..

3. Non-experimental (observational) studies: Cross-sectional and cohort investigations

R Hennekens, C.H., & Buring, J.E. (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown. Section II.

    Types of epidemiologic studies. Chapter 5, Description Studies (pp. 101-102; 106-112; 126); Chapter 6,

    Case-control Studies (pp, 132-137 bottom of page; 142 bottom of page-150); Chapter 7, Cohort Studies

    (pp. 153-168); Chapter 11, Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies: Evaluating the Role of Bias.

R Somasundaram, D. J. (1993). Psychiatric morbidity due to war in Northern Sri Lanka. In J.P Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 28, pp. 338-348.

R Gupta, L. (1996, 25 Feb). Exposure to war related violence among Rwandan children and adolescents: A brief report on the National Baseline Trauma Survey. Kigali, Rwanda: UNICEF Trauma Recovery Programme. 7pp.

R Tennant, C.C., Goulston, K., Dent, O. (1993). Medical and pschiatric consequences of being a prisoner of war of the Japanese: An Australian follow-up survey. In J. P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 19, pp. 231-239.

R Mollica, R.F., Donelan, K., Tor, S., Lavelle, J. Elias, C. Frankel, M., & Blendon, R.J. (1993). The effect of trauma and confinement on functional heatlh and mental health status of Cambodians living in Thailand-Cambodia border camps. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 581-586.

R Wardak, A.W.H. (1993). The psychiatric effects of war stress on Afghanistan society. In J. P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 29, pp. 349-364.

R Quirk, G.J., & Casco, L. (1994). Stress disorders of families of the Disappeared: A controlled study in Honduras. Social Science and Medicine, 19, 1675-1679.

Frechtling, J., & Sharp, L. (Eds.) (1997). User-friendly handbook for mixed method evaluations (NSF97-153). Washington, D.C.: GPO.

McCauley, C., & Bremer, B. (1991). Subjective quality of life measures for evaluating medical intervention. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 14, 371-387..

Webb, E. J., et al. (1966). Unobtrusive measures: nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Barrett, C. B., & Cason, J. W. (1995). Facing the field: a practical guide to overseas social science research. University of Wisconsin: Global Studies Research Program.

4. Experimental and intervention studies

R Hennekens, C.H., & Buring, J.E. (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown. Section II. Types of epidemiologic studies. Chapter 8, Intervention studies (pp. 178-194; 201 middle of page-208)

R Raine, A., Brennan, P., Mednick, S.A. (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984-988.

R Trauma Recovery Program. (1995 April). Alleviating trauma in school: Report after a teacher training, and evaluation on trauma alleviation in schools in Kigali. Kigali, Rwanda: UNICEF. 4pp.

R Olds, D., Henderson, C.R., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D., Pettitt, L., Sidora, K., Morris, P.,& Powers, J. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on childrens'scriminal and antisocial behavior: 15 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1238-1244.

R Chemtob, C.M., Tomas, S., Law, W., and Cremniter, D. (1997). Postdisaster psychological intervention: A field study of the impact of debriefing on psychological distress. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 415-417.

Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Boruch, R., & Foley, E. (In press). The honestly experimental society: sites and other entities as the units of allocation and analysis in randomized experiments. In. L. Bickman (Ed.), Validity and social experimentation: Donald T. Campbell's legacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dennis, M., & Boruch, R. F. (1989). Randomized experiments for planning and testing projects in developing countries: threshold conditions. Evaluation Review, 13, 292-309.

Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1994). The program evaluation standards, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

5. Oral history methods.

R Ritchie, D. A. (1995). Doing oral history. New York: Twayne. Chapter 1, "An oral history of our time." Chapter 3, "Conducting interviews."

R Hoffman, A.M., & Hoffman, Howard S. (1990). Archives of memory. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky. Introduction and Chapter 1, "A psychological overview of memory."

Weiss, R. S. (1994). Learning from strangers: the art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York: Free Press.

Hoffman, A. (19??). Reliability and validity in oral history. In D. K Dunaway & W. Baum (Eds.), Oral history: An interdisciplinary anthology, pp. 67-73..

Pillener, D. Vivid memories.

6. Saturday morning practicum: Interviewing ethnic individuals about conflict



1. Introduction to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychopathology: Depression, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

R American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. (pp. 317-350, especially 339-345; pp. 629-673, especially 645-650; pp. 393-444, especially 424-432)

American Psychological Association Task Force on Psychological Intervention Guidelines. (1995). Template for developing guidelines: Interventions for mental disorders and psychological aspects of  physical disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

R DeRubeis, R. J., & Crits-Christoph, P. (1998). Empirically supported individual and group psychological treatments for adult mental disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 37-52.

2. Identifying and intervening against depression

R DeRubeis, R. J., Young, P. R, & Dahlsgaard, K. K. (1998). Affective disorders. In A. S. Bellack &  M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 339-366). Oxford: Pergamon.

World Health Organization. (1996). Mental health of refugees. Geneva: WHO.

Jamison, C., & Scogin, F. (1995). The outcome of cognitive bibliotherapy with depressed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 644-650.

Lewinsohn, P. M., & Steinmetz, A. (1987). Group therapy for depression: The coping with depression course. In P.A. Keller, S. R. Heyman, et al (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A sourcebook, Vol. 6 (pp. 361-375). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.

R DeRubeis, R. J., Gelfand, L. A., Tang, T. Z., & Simons, A. D. (1999). Medications versus cognitive  behavior therapy for severely depressed outpatients: Mega-analysis of four randomized comparisons. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1007-1013.

3. Identifying and intervening against PTSD and other stress disorders

R American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. (Pp .424-432)

R Foa, E.B., Zinbarg, R., et al. (1992). Uncontrollability and unpredictability in post-traumatic stress disorder: An animal model. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 218-38.

R Jaycox, L.H., Foa, E.B., et al. (1998). Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure  therapy for PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Pschology, 66, 185-92.

R Kushner, M.G., Riggs, D.S., et al. (1993). Perceived controllability and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in crime victims. Behavior Research and Therapy, 31, 105-10.

R Mollica, R.F., Poole, C., et al. (1997). Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents' functional health and mental health status. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1098-1106.

R van der Kolk, B.A. (1997). The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58(Suppl 9)): 16-24.

van der Kolk, B.A., Greenberg, M.S., et al. (1989). Endogenous opiods, stress induced analgesia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 25, 417-21.

Foa, E.B., Dancu, C.V., et al. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress innoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumataic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194-200.

van der Kolk, B.A., & Greenberg, M.S. (1985). Inescapable shock, neurotransmitters, and addiction to trauma: toward a psychobiology of post traumatic stress. Biological Psychiatry, 20, 314-325.

Bolstad, B.R., & Zinbarg, R.E. (1997). Sexual victimization, generalized perception of control, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 523-540.

Ton-That, N. (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder in Asian refugees. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 52 (Suppl): S377-9.

Thabet, A.A., & Vostanis, P. (1999). Post-traumatic stress reactions in children of war. Journal of Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 40, 385-91.

Jaycox, L. H., & Foa, E. B. (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 499-517). Oxford: Pergamon.

Milgram, N. A. (1998). Victims of war. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (Vol. 9, pp. 391-406). Oxford: Pergamon.

4. The case against pathologizing victims of ethnopolitical conflict

The constructivist argument:

R Scott, Wilbur (1990). PTSD in DSM-III: A Case in the Politics of Diagnosis and Disease. Social Problems, 37 (3): 294-310

Young, Allen (1995). The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pages 13-142

Trimble, Michael (1981). Post-Traumatic Neurosis: From Railway Spine to the Whiplash. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons

Dean, Eric (1997). Shook Over Hell: Post-Traumatic Stress, Vietnam, and the Civil War. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

The scientific evidence:

Bowman, Marilyn (1997). Individual Differences in Posttraumatic Response: Problems with the  Adversity-Distress Connection. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Van der Kolk, Bessel; McFarlane, Alexander; & Lars Weisaeth, Eds. (1996). Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: The Guilford Press

R Yehuda, Rachel & McFarlane, Alexander (1995). Conflict Between Current Knowledge About Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Its Original Conceptual Basis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152 (12): 1705-1713

R Hales, Robert & Zatzick, Douglas (1997). What is PTSD? American Journal of Psychiatry, 154 (2): 143-5.

Young, Allen (1995). The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pages 143-290

Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: The role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597-605.

The Cross-Cultural Argument:

R Bracken, Patrick; Giller, Joan; & Summerfield, Derek (1995). Psychological Responses to War and Atrocity: the Limitations of Current Concepts. Social Science and Medicine, 40: 1073-82

R Summerfield, Derek (1999). A Critique of Seven Assumptions behind Psychological Trauma Programmes in War-Affected Areas. Social Science and Medicine, 48: 1449-1462

Summerfield, D. (1996). The impact of war and atrocity on civilian populations: Basic principles for NGO interventions and a critique of psychosocial trauma projects (Network Paper 14). London, UK: Relief and Rehabilitation Network, Overseas Development Institutute.

Fadiman, Anne (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Kleinman, Arthur & Good, Byron (1985). Culture and Depression. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Simons, Ronald (1996). Boo! Culture, Experience and the Startle Reflex. New York: Oxford University Press


Bailey, P.; Willams, F.; Komora, P.; Salmon, T.; Fenton, N. (eds) (1929). The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War, Volume X, Neuropsychiatry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Southard, Elmer (1919). Shell-Shock and Other Neuropsychiatric Problems Presented in Five Hundred and Eighty-Nine Case Histories from the War Literature, 1914-1918, Boston: W.M. Leonard.

5. Public health approaches to PTSD and stress disorders

R Chemtob, C., Roitblat, H.L., Hamada, R.S., Carlson, J.G., & Twentyman, C. T. (1988). A cognitive action theory of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2, 253-275.

R Chemtob, C.M., Hakashima, J., Hamada, R.S., & Carlson, J.G. (Unpublished). Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A field study.

R Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J.P., Hamada, R.S., & Roitblat, H.L. (Unpublished). Psychosocial intervention for post-disaster trauma symptoms in elementary school children: A controlled community study.

R Chemtob, C.M. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and culture. International Review of Psychiatry (Vol II). Editors: LehMac, F. & Nadelson, C. Section editors: J.T. Davidson & A. McFarlane. Volume 2: 257-292. Washington, DC: APA Press and American Psychiatric Association.

6. Anger in PTSD

R Chemtob, C.M., Hamada, R.S., Roitblat, H.L., & Muraoka, M.Y. (1994). Anger, impulsivity, and anger control in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 827-832.

R Chemtob, C.M., Novaco, R.W., Hamada, R.S., Gorss, D.M., & Smith,G. (1997). Anger regulation deficits in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 17-36.

R Chemtob, C.M., Novaco, R.W., Hamada, R.S., & Gross, D.M. (1997). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for severe anger in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 184-189.

R Novaco, R.W., & Chemtob, C.M. (In press). Anger and trauma: conceptualization, assessment, and treatment. In V. M. Folette, J.I. Ruzek & F.R. Abneg (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma, pp.162-190. New York: Guilford Press.



1. Genocide and ethnic cleansing

R Chirot, D. (1997). Modern tyrants: The power and prevalence of evil in our age. New York: Free Press.  Chapter 2, Moderation Abandoned. Chapter 3, In the Beginning Was the Word. Chapter 12, Some Propositions, Lessons, and Predictions about Tyranny.

R O'Leary, B., & McGarry, J. (1995). Regulating nations and ethnic communities. Chapter 11 in Breton, A. Et al (Eds.), Nationalism and rationality. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Horwitz, D. (1985). Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rummel, R. J. (1996). Death by government. New Brunswik, NJ: Transactions Publishers.

Horowitz, I. L. (1997). Taking lives: Genocide and state power. Fourth Edition.

Bennett, C. (1997). Ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. In M. Guibernau & J. Rex (Eds.), The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism & Migration, 120-132. Malden: Blackwell.

2. Control and partition

R Kumar, R. (1997). The troubled history of partition. Foreign Affairs, 76(1), 22-34.

Letter responding by I. Lustick, 76(3),152-153

Lustick, I. (1980). Arabs in the Jewish state: Israel's control of a national minority. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Lustick, I. (1979). Stability in deeply divided societies: consociationalism vs. control. World Politics, 31, 325-344.

R Lustick, I. (1993). Unsettled states, disputed lands. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Chapter 9, Israel and the West Bank and the Gaza Strip: Tracing the Status of Changing Relationship.

Hannum, H. (1998). The specter of secession. Foreign Affairs, 77(2), 13-19.

Barkey, H., & Fuller, G. (1998). Turkey's Kurdish question. Lanhorn, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.

Bowman, J. (1982). A line on the map. In DeValera and the Ulster question, 1917-1973, pp. 11-28. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Mearsheimer, J., & Van Evera, S. (1995). When peace means war: the partition that dare not speak its name. The New Republic, 213(Dec. 18), p. 16 (four pages).

3. Multicultural liberalism and integration

R Kymlicka, W. (1998 unpublished). Western political theory and ethnic relations in eastern europe.

Higham, J. Send these to me.

Walzer, M. The politics of ethnicity.

Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. New York: Oxford University Press. .

Wolfinger, R. (1966). Some Consequences of Ethnic Politics. In K. Jennings & L. Zeigler (Eds), The Electoral Process. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McGarry, J., & O'Leary, B. (1995). Five fallacies and the liabilities of liberalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18, 837-861.

4. Consociationalism

R Noel, S.J.R. (1993). Canadian responses to ethnic conflict: Consociationalism, federalism and control. In J. McGarry & B. O'Leary (Eds.), The politics of ethnic conflict regulation: Case studies of protracted ethnic conflicts, pp. 41-61. NY: Routledge.

R Lijphart, A. (1974). Consociational democracy. In K. McRae (Ed.), Consociational democracy: Political accomodation in segmented societies. London: McClelland and Stewart Limited.

R Lustick, I. (1979). Stability in deeply divided societies: Consociationalism versus control. World Politics, XXXI, 325-344.

R Steiner, J. (1990). Power sharing: Another Swiss "export product"? In J. Montville (Ed.), Conflict and peacemaking in multiethnic societies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Taylor, R. (unpublished paper). Northern Ireland: Consociation or social transformation?

Lustick, I. (1997). Lijphart, Lakatos, and consociationalism. World Politics, 50, 88-117.

5. Federalism and autonomy designs.

Waterbury, J. (1997). Avoiding the iron cage of legislated identity. In W. Danspeckgruber & A. Watts (Eds.), Self-determination and self-administration: A sourcebook.

Hannum, H. (1996). Autonomy, sovereignty, and self-determination : the accommodation of conflicting rights. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.



1. Psychosocial models used to explain refugee behavior

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5-68.

2. Psychosocial interventions in refugee settings

R Summerfield, D. (draft RSP Mellon Module, 1999). The nature of conflict and the implications for appropriate psychosocial responses.

Waldron, S., & Hasci, N. A. (1995). Somali refugees in the Horn of Africa: State of the art literature review. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Studies on Emergencies and Disaster Relief, Report No. 4.

Burkey, S. (1993). People first: A guide to self-reliant, participatory rural development. Zed publications.

Ferguson, J. (1994). The Anti-Politics Machine. University of Minnesota Press.

Harrell-Bond, B. (1986). Imposing aid: Emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gibney, M. J. (In press). Liberal democratic states and responsibilites to refugees.

3. Engendering forced migration

Indra, D. (Ed.) (1999). Engendering Forced Migration. NY: Berghahn Books.

4. The refugee experience/refugee children

R Ager, A. (Ed) (1999). Refugees. Perspectives on the experience of forced migration. London, Cassell.  Chapter 1, Perspectives on the Refugee Experience. Chapter 9, The Experience of Refugee Children.

International Save the Children Alliance. (1996). Promoting psychosocial well-being among children affected by armed conflict and displacement: Principles and approaches. Working Paper No. 1.

Ager, A. (1995) Children, war and psychological intervention. In S. C. Carr and J. Schumaker (eds) , Psychology and the Developing World. New York: Praeger.

5. Cross-cultural responses/Programming and evaluation skills

R Summerfield, D. (1999). A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science and Medicine, 48,1449-1462 [see Week 7]

Ager, A. (1997) Tensions in the psychosocial discourse: implications for the planning of interventions with war-affected populations. Development in Practice, 7 (4), 402-407.



1. Social psychological dimensions of ethnic conflict and conflict resolution

Burton, J.W. (1987). Resolving deep-rooted conflict: A handbook. Lanhem, MD: University Press of America. Part 1(pp.3-28).

R Kelman, H.C. (In press). Interactive problem solving: Informal mediation by the scholar/practitioner.  In J. Bercovitch (Ed.), Studies in international mediation: Essays in honor of Jeffrey Z. Rubin. New York: St Martin's Press.

Kelman, H.C. (1997). Social-psychological dimensions of international conflict. In I.W. Zartman & J.L. Rasmussen (Eds.), Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques. Washington, DC: U.S. Insititute of Peace. Pp. 191-233.

Kelman, H.C. (1993). Coalitions across conflict lines: The interplay of conflicts within and between the Israeli and Palestinian communities. In S. Worchel and J.A. Simpson (Eds.), Conflict between people and groups. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Kelman, H.C. (1997). Group processes in the resolution of international conflicts: Experiences from the Israeli-Palestinian case. American Psychologist, 52, 210-220.

R Hicks, D. (1999). How functional aspects of identity become dysfunctional in protracted conflict. Paper presented at the Twelfth Conference of the International Association of Conflict Management, San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain.

R Kelman, H.C. (1999). The role of social identity in conflict resolution: Experiences from Israeli- Palestinian problem-solving workshops. Paper presented at the Twelfth Conference of the International Association of Conflict Management, San Sebastian-Donastia, Spain.

2. Group conflict and conflict resolution: simulation

3. Simulation concluded, with theoretical discussion

Rothchild, D. (1997). Managing ethnic conflict in Africa: Pressures and incentives for cooperation.  Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Fisher, R. (1997). Interactive conflict resolution. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Voutira, E., & Whishaw-Brown, S.A. (1995). Conflict resolution: A review of some non-governmental practices ('a cautionary tale'). Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Studies on Emergencies and Disaster Relief, Report No. 4.

Kelman, H. (1986). Overcoming Barriers to Negotiation of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Journal of  Palestine Studies, 16, no. 1, 13-28.

Kelman, H. (1992). Acknowledging the other's nationhood: How to create a momentum for the Israeli- Palestinian negotiations. Journal of Palestine Studies, 22, no. 1, 18-38.